Volume 4, Issue 1.
Teachers Application of Ethics of Classroom Assessment in Secondary Schools in Enugu State
Ene, C. U.; Ikeh, Elochukwu Francis & Nwoye, M. N.
Assessment is an important component of the teaching and learning and learning process. The study surveyed the extent of teachers application of the ethics of classroom assessment in senior secondary schools in Enugu State. The study employed descriptive survey research design. The population comprised of 4,190 senior secondary school teachers in the 2017/2018 academic session. Sample size of 419 teachers (105 males and 314 females) was used for the study. The instrument for data collection was a 26-item Questionnaire titled Teachers Application of the Ethics of Classroom Assessment (TAECA). The reliability coefficient of 0.81 was obtained for the instrument using Cronbach Alpha method. Mean and standard deviation was used to answer all the research questions while t-test was used to test the formulated hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that teachers application of the ethics of classroom assessment during test is to a large extent grading of students work and training students on test taking skills is to a low extent. It was recommended among others that teachers should be aware that ethical practices in classroom assessment will lead to better decisions about students. The findings of the study have implications for teachers and all stakeholders in education that should ensure the application of the ethical practices in the discharge of their duties.
An Investigation into Students Common Mistake in Research Research Writing
OSSAI, Peter Agbadobi Uloku
This study examined common mistakes in research writing among post-graduate students in Faculty of Education, Delta State University, Abraka. It was aimed at identifying mistakes in research reports with specific reference to the first two chapters. Three research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. Descriptive survey design was used in the study. An estimated population of sixty lecturers from the Faculty of Education was used for the study. Purposive sampling technique was used to draw a sample of twenty-one lecturers from the 9 departments in the faculty. The research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation while the hypothesis was tested at .05 level of significance using independent samples t-test statistics. Among others, the study showed that students common mistakes centred on poor language skill, sweeping statements, imbalance between in-text citations and reference list, presenting literature review like lecture notes and turning Background to the Study to literature review. There was no significant difference between male and female lecturer in the mean observation of students common mistake in research writing. It was recommended that students should (i) have their works proof-read by experts in English Language and (ii) attend departmental and faculty seminars where discussants explain practical ways of research writing.
Lecturers level of Awareness of ICT Facilities for Teaching Purposes
Nannim, Audu Fadip, Yushau, Balarabe & Gital Abdulsalam Ya’u
The study investigated Lecturers level of Awareness of available ICT Facilities in the universityfor teaching purposes. The population of the study was 928 academic staff of Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, from which a sample of 433 lecturers were selected for data collection. A questionnaire with reliability of 0.897 was used for data collection. In addition, five lecturers were interviewed. Findings from the study showed that the lecturers are partially aware of the available ICT facilities in the university. Gender and years of teaching experience were found to have statistically significant influence on lecturers’ level of awareness. However, lecturers’ qualification was found to have statistically significant influence on lecturers’ level of awareness. It was recommended that ICT awareness programmes and training should be provided to lecturers on a regular basis in order to increase their awareness on the available ICT facilities.
Analysis of Gender Disparity in Students Performance in Mathematics and Physics in West African Senior School Certificate Examination
Elejere, Ugochukwu Christian, Omeke, Ngozi E. & Eze, Chikwere C.
This study analyzed in west Africa senior secondary School Certificate Examinations in Mathematics and Physics in Nsukka Local Government Area based on gender. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. All the public secondary school students who sat for WASSCE in 2014-2016 in Nsukka Local Government Area formed the population of the study while a sample of 1060 was used for the study. Students academic performance proforma was used to gather students performance in mathematics and physics for the years in question. Data collected were analysed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions and t-test of independent samples to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study showed that there are significant differences in the mean performances of male and female students in WASSCE in both Mathematics and Physics in favour of the male students. The implication of this is that there is gender disparity in the performance of students in both Mathematics and Physics in 2014-2016 WASSCE. Thus, it was recommended among others that efforts should be put in place by both mathematics and physics teachers in order to encourage active participation of female students in the learning of the subjects.
Utilization of Innovative Teaching Strategies for Biology Teaching in Senior Secondary School
The paper examined biology teachers level of utilization innovative teaching strategies in classroom in Delta state. Four research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. A
descriptive survey design was adopted for the study and the population consisted of all biology teachers in Ika North-east LGA of Delta state with a total of 247 biology teachers in 47 secondary school. The sample was made up of 131 biology teachers drown from 30 schools. The instrument for data collection was Standardized Innovative Teaching Strategies Questionnaire (SITSQ) adapted from Gbadamosi, (2013). Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while independent sample t-test was used to test the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The result revealed that biology teachers rarely utilized innovative teaching. It also shows significant influence of qualification and experience on biology teachers’ utilization of innovative teaching strategies but no significance influence of gender was found. As a result of the findings, some recommendation was made.
Integrating Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Among Pre-Service Science and Mathematics Teachers in Nigerian Universities
Onuh Chris Chukwukereuba
This paper explored the ways in which pre-service teachers at the Universities and Colleges of Education can develop the knowledge of integrating technology pedagogy and content in Science and Mathematics teaching because it is not learning how to use technology which improves an understanding of Science and Mathematics but the manner in which technology is used to support learning. Teachers can develop technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) when they engage in learning activities which reflect the real teaching process. This implies that teachers (TPACK can be develop by engaging them in a real-life learning process which involves hands-on activities rather than the theoretical learning and there is need to pay more attention on preparing pre-service teachers for integrating technology in classroom practice lesson delivery because most science teachers in Nigeria have not shown adequate knowledge in TPACK. This paper tried to identify and examined the problems and prospects of integrating technological pedagogical content knowledge among pre-service science and mathematics teachers and some of its prospects in Nigeria universities. Recommendations were proffered and conclusion drawn.
Meta-Analysis of Four Modes Application Technique on the Academic Achievement of Students in Science
Ahmad, S. S. & Umate, B. A
The study investigated Meta- analytical review of studies conducted on the effects of 4MAT teaching strategy on students achievement in studies carried from 2008 – 2018. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which 4MAT improves students performance whether sample size (small or large) and science subject type has effect on the outcome of 4MAT with respect to students achievement in science. Twenty seven (27) primary studies were obtained out of which only Fifteen (15) studies were used based on inclusion criteria set in the study. Comprehensive Meta Analysis Software version 3 (CMS, V3) was used for data analysis. Three research questions were answered using Meta analytical analysis output of the selected studies. The results of the study revealed that the effect sizes of these studies are highly heterogeneous (Q>x2, P<0.05, I2 =94.858%) suggesting for the use of Random model effect. It was found that 4MAT significantly improve science students academic achievement with effect size (d) of 1.582 corresponding to distribution overlap (U3) of 94.5% (d=1.582, U3=94.5%), science students academic achievement did not show significant difference in exposure to 4MAT with respect to sample size and Subjects type. Based on the results, it was recommended that 4MAT should be used in teaching and learning of Science, Technology and Mathematics.
Appraisal of Teacher and Student Issues for Effective Teaching and Learning of Mathematics in the Secondary School.
Mathematics teachers are responsible for ensuring that the students get the knowledge and skills that would enable them succeed in the classroom as well as future career. They also ensure that mathematics empowers the students to become productive citizens of the society. In spite of these, there are issues that worry them which need to be addressed for effective teaching and learning to take place. The issues include prior knowledge, relating the learning material to real
life among others. The steps to be taken in addressing the issues are also discussed which included among others: administration of prior knowledge assessment at early stage of the subject, building confidence in the students, ensuring that homework is at the appropriate level
Effect of computer aided instruction on students’ academic achievement in Physics in Senior Secondary School in Nkanu West Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria
Oguama, Bethrand Ekwundu; Ugwoke, Dennis Uchenna & Ogbodo, Joy Njiko
Learning is a process that needs hard work and sometimes makes students frustrated and bored.
In this context, the use of computers as media in teaching-learning process is of important to attract students attention and to make teaching -learning activities more effective and enjoyable. This study investigated computer aided instruction on students’ achievement in Physics in Nkanu West Local Government Area of Enugu State with emphasis on gender. Quasi experimental research design was adopted. Four senior secondary school one students (SSS 1) were purposively sampled from a total of eleven senior secondary schools in the area. The sample comprised 136 SSS1 students from intact classes of co-educational schools selected randomly from Nkanu West Local Government Area in Enugu State. Data were collected using Physics Achievement Test (PAT), which was validated by two trained physics teachers. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the two null hypotheses formulated to guide the study. The finding revealed a significant difference between the mean achievement scores of students exposed to CAI and the mean achievement scores of students exposed to conventional teaching method. However, the finding revealed no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students exposed to CAI. Based on these findings, the researcher recommended that the government should often sponsor students and teachers to attend annual short-time trainings and seminars on computer literacy, information, communication and technology (ICT). Government should ensure the provision of well equipped ICT centers in every secondary school, so that the use of computer-aided instruction in the teaching and learning of Physics will be facilitated.
Think-Pair-Share Instructional Strategy: A Variety Tool for Enhancing students achievement in secondary school chemistry.
Gloria Ngozi Eze & Peter Chidiebere Obiekwe
This study adopted a quasi-experimental design, specifically pre-test, post-test, non-equivalent control group, to investigate the effect of think-pair-share instructional strategy on students achievement in chemistry. Two research question and two null hypotheses guided the study. A sample of 100SS one students was drawn by simple random sampling technique from the five co-educational secondary schools in Ikwuano LGA in Umahia Education Zone. The instrument for data collection was the particulate nature of matter achievement test. The instrument was validated by two experts in Science Education Department of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. The reliability of the instrument was determined using test-retest method and the score correlated using pearson’s product moment correlation which yielded an index 0.93. the research questions were answered using descriptive statistics while the null hypotheses were tested at .05 level of significance using analysis of covariance. The result of data analysis showed a significant difference in the mean achievement scores of the experimental and control groups in favour of the experimental group. Again, the findings of the study revealed that male students exposed to think-pair-share instructional strategy achieved higher than their female counterparts. It was recommended among other things, that teachers should adopt the use of think-pair-share instructional strategy as a vari
achievement in chemistry.
Undergraduate students perception on the methods of teaching Computer Programming in the South-South, Nigerian Federal Universities
Okekeokosisi, Johnbosco O. C & Okigbo, E.C.
The study investigated the undergraduate students perception on the methods of teaching computer programming. The study became necessary due to poor performance of students in the course. Descriptive survey design was adopted. Three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. Proportionate stratified random sampling technique was used to draw the sample size of 1000 students from three out of the five federal universities in south south geopolitical zone of Nigeria. A questionnaire titled Lecturers Teaching Method Questionnaire (LTMQ) was developed by the researchers for data collection. The developed instrument was validated by three experts; two have taught computer programming for at least five years and one educational methodology expert. The data were analyzed using percentage, mean, standard deviation and t-test. The findings revealed that lecturers employed lecture method during instruction mostly and never used guided discovery and practical methods; gender had no influence on the perception of undergraduates on the methods used by their lecturers and the factors affecting their choice of teaching methods. Based on the findings, recommendations were made which include that the university management should monitor the methods of teaching employed by their lecturers even when the lecturers are not from Faculty of Education.
Effect of Computer Simulation on Junior Secondary School Students Achievement in Algebra
Egara, F.O., Nzeadibe, A.C., & Okeke, M.A.
This study examined the effect of computer simulation on achievement of students in Algebra at junior secondary school level. Two research questions and two hypotheses were asked and formulated respectively. The research employed quasi experimental design of pre-test post-test control group type. A sample of 54 students participated in the study. The statistical tool employed in analyzing data for this study was Special Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Algebra Achievement Test (AAT) was the instrument for data collection. The reliability coefficient of AAT was 0.98. The result showed that the use of computer simulation approach in teaching affect students’ achievement in algebra than the conventional teaching approach. It is recommended that mathematics teachers should incorporate computer simulation approach among other instructional strategies employed especially in the teaching of Algebra.
Impact of Gender Friendly Teacher Practices on Students’ Participation and Achievement in Chemistry
Dave-Ugwu, Priscilla & Nwosu, A.A.
This study was designed to investigate the impact of gender friendly classroom teacher practices on students’ participation and achievement in chemistry. The design used for the study was quasi-experimental design. The non-equivalent control group was used. Three hundred and twenty (320) SS I students formed the sample. Four schools were mpurposively selected from fifty one co-educational schools in Nsukka education zone of Enugu State. Two intact classes were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group was exposed to the gender friendly classroom teacher practices (GFCTP) while the control group was exposed to the conventional classroom teacher practices (CIP). Six research questions and corresponding null hypotheses guided the study. Two instruments used for data collection were: Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) and Classroom Participation Index Scale (CPIS). These instruments were validated. The reliability of the CAT was determined using Kuder- Richardson formula 20 (K-R 20) and a reliability index of 0.94 was obtained. An inter taters reliability was done for the participation checklist using Kendal’s W-test and an index of 0.77 was obtained. The data were analyzed using mean and standard
deviation for answering research questions and ANCOVA employed for testing the hypotheses, observation was analyzed using Pearson product correlation coefficient. The result revealed that the use of gender friendly classroom teacher practices ehance students participation in chemistry classes and promotes a high level of achievement. The students taught with the GFCTP were more superior in terms of hands -on-activities. Gender had no significant effect on students achievement and has no significant effect on student mean participation score. Based on the findings recommendation were made: Since the use of gender friendly classroom teacher practices has been seen to improve students achievement and enhance participation, Teachers should therefore endeavor to use the GFCTP well on their day to day lesson delivery, the curriculum planners should develop and integrate gender friendly teachers’ guide for teachers, who are the key implementers of the curriculum. Government agencies and professional associations whose responsibility it is to design and review
the curriculum should incorporate and emphasize the use of gender friendly classroom practices.
Students Attitude and Gender as Correlates of Senior Secondary School students performance in Biology in Abia State, Nigeria
Ndirika, MaryAnn C., & Obumnaeke, Emeruwa
The study was carried out to investigate students attitude and gender as correlates of senior secondary school students achievement in biology. Five research questions and five hypotheses guided the study and the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The studyadopted a descriptive and correlational research design. The population of the study was 10,790 students which comprised of 6078 female students and 4712 male students in senior secondary schools in Ikwuano L.G.A, Abia State. The sample of the study was 400 Biology students which comprised of 200 female and 200 male students drawn randomly from 10 schools. Two instruments used for data collections were the Attitude Scale and the scores of students in a Biology achievement
test. The reliability coefficient of the Attitude Scale was 0.79. Data were analysed using mean and standard deviation, Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation and Simple Linear regression. Results show that there was a significant moderate positive relationship between students attitude toward biology and their achievement Biology. A negative low relationship which was not significant was found between the. Male students attitude to Biology and female students attitude in Biology. A significant moderate positive low relationship which was not significant was found between the academic achievement of male and female students in Biology. A significant moderate positive relationship was also found between male and female students attitude to biology and their scores in Biology achievement test. Based on the findings, the study recommends that the teachers of Biology should foster positive and right attitude towards the learning of Biology as this will help to improve performance in Biology.
Influence of School Categories on The Performance of Senior Secondary School Students in Algebraic Equations in Sokoto State, Nigeria
Inweregbuh, Onyemauche Christopher
This study investigated the influence of school categories on the performance of senior secondary school students in algebraic equations in Sokoto State. The descriptive survey research design was used for this study. The population of the study was four thousand and thirty seven (4037) students from 12 schools in 6 educational zones of Sokoto State. Three hundred and fifty one (351) students were selected using Krejcie and Morgan Table for determining sample size. The instrument adopted for the study was an academic performance test in algebraic content. The three hypotheses formulated for the study were tested using statistics measuring difference (T-test).The findings of the results revealed that the performance of students in algebraic equation was not good enough; therefore, it was recommended among others that teachers should make sure that basic concepts, signs, symbols and terms are properly understood by students. The findings of the study have implications for gender in solving mathematics, that No gender should be regarded as the best in solving mathematics. Every student should be treated equally in the class.
Efficacy of Integrated Teaching Method in Biology Classroom.
Ngwu, Anthonia Ngozi & Ugwu, Theresa Ukamaka
The study aimed at exploring the efficacy of integrated teaching method in Biology classroom. Three research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. The design of the study was quasi-experimental, specifically the non-randomized control group design. A total of 180 SS1 students which were randomly sampled from the population of 1, 356 senior secondary one (SSI) Biology students were involved in the study. An instrument Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was used for data collection. The BAT was validated by experts and its reliability was established and found to be 0.86. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used in testing the null hypotheses at 0.05level of significance. The results show that integrated teaching method enhanced achievement in Biology. Gender was not significant on student overall achievement using integrated teaching method and traditional teaching method. It was recommended that integrated teaching method should be adopted as an effective strategy for teaching Biology. Teacher professional development programs should introduce the strategy in their teaching methods to be used in classes. Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) should organize workshops, seminars and conferences on the integrated teaching method for science teachers for the acquisition of skills by students which enhances academic achievement.
Comparative Effects of Blended and Non-Blended Learning Strategies on students achievement in Basic Science
Mbonu, Bianca Uzoamaka
The study investigated the comparative effects of blended and non-blended learning strategy on students achievement in basic science in Onitsha Education Zone, Anambra State, Nigeria. The study specifically adopted the pretest posttest non-equivalent control group design. Two research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. The population of the study comprised all the 2,479 JSS2 students from the 19 co-educational secondary schools in the zone. Simple random sampling technique was used to select two schools out of which 91 basic science students from two intact classes, one for the experimental and the other for the control, made up the sample size for the study. The validated instrument tagged “ Basic Science Achievement Test (BSAT)” with reliability co- efficient of 0.87 was used to collectdata for the study. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) was used to test the null
hypotheses. The results revealed that blended learning strategy (BLS) is more effective in enhancing students achievement in basic science than the non-blended learning strategy (NBLS) irrespective of gender. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that basic science teachers should adopt the blended learning strategy for the purpose of improving students achievement irrespective of gender.
Trends in Academic Achievement of Basic Science Students in Junior Secondary Schools: Implication for Enhancing Science Education for Self- Reliance
Eya, N. M.
The paper investigated the trends in academic achievement of basic science students in Junior Secondary Schools. The specific purpose of the study is to determine the level of academic achievement of basic science students from 2012 to 2016 and also to determine the influence of school type on the academic achievement of basic science students. It discussed its implication for enhancing science education for self-reliance in a recessed economy. Two research questions and one hypothesis guided the research. The design is a descriptive survey. The population consists of all the JSS III students that sat for Junior School Certificate Examination (JSCE) schools in Enugu East Local
Government Area from 2012 to 2016. The researcher selected three secondary schools out of the ten secondary schools in Enugu East Local Government Area using simple random sampling technique and all the JSS3 students that sat for the JSCE in the three schools within the time range were in used as the sample. Data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for answering the research questions while t-test was used for testing the hypothesis. The findings indicated that the level of academic achievement of basic science students is low and also that there is a significant difference in the academic achievement of basic science students from single sex and co-educational schools. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that government should regularly organize conferences, seminars and workshops for the in-service basic science teachers to help them in updating their knowledge in the contents in basic science curriculum.
Efficacy of the Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on
Ugwuanyi, C. C.; Mwantok, G. J.; Mbara, S. O. & Ogbu, Sunday
The study investigated the efficacy of the use of ICT on students achievement in Abstract Mathematics (Geometry). The study employed a quasi-experimental design, specifically the pre test, post-test non equivalent control group design. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The sample size of eighty (80) JSS3 students obtained from two intact classes randomly sampled from two secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government Area were used for the study. The instrument used for data collection was Geometry Achievement Test (GAT). The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for answering the research questions while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed that students taught geometry using ICT tools performed better than students taught using conventional method; male and female students performed equally when taught geometry using ICT tools. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the teaching and learning of geometry in Junior Secondary Schools should be conducted in a manner that both teachers and the students will be actively involved (like when ICT is used) in the teaching and learning process; in-service training, workshop and symposia should be organized and made compulsory for practicing teachers to help them become aware of efficacy of the use of ICT tools in teaching and its efficacy, especially in helping students to achieve highly in geometry.
Achievement in Basic Science as A Predator of Students Achievement in Senior in Senior Secondary School Chemistry in Anambra State.
Chukwunwogor, E.O., & Ezeudu, F.O.
The study investigated achievement in basic science as a predator of students achievement in senior secondary school chemistry. The correlation study was carried out in Onitsha Education Zone of Anambra state. The population of the study consisted of all the 1624 SS1 students who sat for chemistry at the end of year examination of the Anambra State Post- Primary Schools Services Commission of (ANPPSSC) in 2012. From this population, a sample of 367 students from thirteen schools drawn by stratified proportionate random sampling was studied. Basic Science results of the students in the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) for 2011 were used as the predictor variable while SS1 Chemistry annual examination scores of the same students for 2012 were the criterion variable. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The BECE Basic Science grades of the students were converted to raw scores using stannine scale and then correlated with their SS1 Chemistry annual examination scores. Analyses of the results using Pearson Product Moment Correlation, regression analysis, and ANOVA revealed that Basic Science results significantly predicted the achievement of the students in SS1 Chemistry. Based on this finding, it was recommended that at least a credit pass in Basic Science in the BECE should be a criterion for admission of students to study Chemistry in SS1.
Green Chemistry: A Veritable Approach to an Environmentally Friendly Process
Okechineke, Benjamin Chukwunonso
Green Chemistry, which is the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances, is placed in the frontier areas of research and has been focused for consideration recent research. The current emphasis on
green chemistry reflects a shift away from the grey approach (cleaning up of generated waste) to environmental hazards that deal with waste treatment, control and pollution prevention. Rather than accepting waste generation and disposal as unavoidable, green chemistry seeks new technologies, processes, practices and products that are cleaner, ecofriendly, environmentally friendly, benign and economically competitive; by providing green paths for different synthetic routes using non-hazardous solvents and environmental friendly chemicals both in the laboratory and industries. The major aim of this article is to establish as a fact that green chemistry has been an acceptable approach to sustainably environmental friendly process in chemistry practices. The paper traced briefly, the history, general concept, scope and principles of green chemistry. It also examined the different between green and grey chemistry while green solvent and their applications were highlighted. Recommendations like the campaign towards the adoption of green processes in the industries were made.
Effect of a Constructivist- Based Instructional Model on Students Conceptual Change in Chemistry
Okotcha Evangeline Nwakaego
The general purpose of this study was to empirically examine students’ conceptual change in electrochemistry using prior conception, exploration, discussion, dissatisfaction and application (PEDDA) instructional model and conventional method of instruction which is widely used in our secondary schools. The study was guided by two research questions and three null hypotheses. The study adopted the quasi-experimental design, specifically the non-equivalent control group design. The study was conducted in Delta State. The population of the study comprised all the Senior Secondary school two (SS2) chemistry students. The sample of the study consisted of 148 students. Students were assigned to experimental and control groups in their intact classes. The experimental group was taught using PEDDA constructivist model while the control group was taught using the conventional method of instruction. Both groups were given pretest and posttest. The instrument used in this study was the electrochemistry conceptual change test (ECCT). The instrument was validated by five experts in the Department of Science Education,
University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Electrochemistry conceptual change test (ECCT) was trial tested and the reliability coefficient of 0.84 was obtained. The internal consistency of ECCT was found to be 0.81 using Cronbach’s Alpha. The mean scores and standard deviations of pretest and posttest were used to answer the research questions. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used in testing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Trace analysis of students of students responds item by item and by group of level of understanding on pretest to posttest was done to determine the type of change that occurred. The findings of the study showed that PEDDA instructional model enhance students conceptual change in electrochemistry compared to the conventional method of instruction. Also, there was no significant influence of gender on students conceptual change, it was recommended among others that chemistry teachers should be trained and retrained on how to use PEDDA instructional model in teaching chemistry concepts.
Effect of Three Steps Metacognitive Instructional Model on Student Achievement in Basic Science
Ezedinma, Florence Ogbonne & Nwosu, Apollonia A.
This study investigated the effect of three steps metacognitive instructional model (3-step MIM) on students achievement in basic science. Two research questions and three null hypotheses guided the study. A non-equivalent control group quasi experimental design was employed. A sample of 140 JS1 students from four public co-educational secondary schools in Ankpa Local Government Area of Kogi State, Nigeria was used. Two schools were assigned to the experimental and control groups respectively. The experimental groups were exposed to 3-step MIM while the control groups were exposed to the expository instructional method (EIM). The research instruments used for data collection were Basic Science Achievement Test (BSAT). Mean and standard deviation scores were used to answer the research questions while the Analysis of Covariance was used to test the null hypotheses. The result revealed that the students taught using 3-step MIM achieved higher than those taught with the EIM (P < 0.05). It was recommended that teachers should employ participatory activity-based and learner centered instructional methods like the 3- step MIM in the teaching and learning as this will enhance cognitive domain of the students in Basic Science.
Effects of Demonstration Method and Cooperative Learning Technique on Students Retention in Concepts of Writing and Baalancing of Chemical Equations
Njoku, Z. C., & Attah, F. O.
The writing and balancing of chemical equations are the basic foundational concepts of Chemistry education. These concepts are so foundational in the learning of Chemistry that without proficiency in them success in Chemistry Education is completely compromised. These concepts have been indicated as very difficult to learn at the senior school level. Chemistry teachers and educators have for a long time been striving to find effective ways of teaching the concepts successfully at the secondary school level because the concepts are very fundamental to the understanding of Chemistry. This study sought to determine the efficacy of demonstration and cooperative learning methods on students retention in writing and balancing of chemical equations. To guide the study, two research questions were posed and three null hypotheses were formulated. Quasi experimental research design was used as the design for the study. Specifically, pre-test, post-test, non-equivalent control group design was adopted for the study. A sample of eighty  senior secondary one (SS1) students was used for the study. Chemistry Retention Test (CRT) in the form of achievement essay test was used as instrument for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation of scores and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) statistics. The findings of the study revealed that there is no significant difference in the mean retention scores of students taught writing and balancing of chemical equation using demonstration method and those taught using cooperative learning strategy of teaching. Gender was not a significant factor in students retention in the concept of writing and balancing of chemical equations. There is no significant interaction effect of method and gender on the retention of students in writing and balancing of chemical equations. One of the implications of the findings is that demonstration method of teaching and learning and cooperative learning strategy of teaching are statistically equally effective in enhancing the retention of students learning in the concept of writing and balancing chemical equations. It was recommended that these two methods should be adopted by Chemistry teachers when they are teaching these foundational concepts to SSI students.